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기본소득과 국토보유세: 등장 배경, 도입 방안, 그리고 예상 효과

전강수, 강남훈

전강수, 강남훈

기본소득과 국토보유세: 등장 배경, 도입 방안, 그리고 예상 효과
Basic Income and National Land Tax in Korea : Background, Implementation Plans and the Estimated Effects



Rising income inequality, deteriorating status of workers, a huge amount of unearned income from real estate, fragile social safety net and weak redistribution function of public finance have contributed to the emergence of basic income since the late 2000’s in Korea. This paper suggests two policy models of basic income that can be applied to Korea. The first model, the Basic Income Model I, combines basic income with national land holding tax. The Basic Income Model Ⅱ has a plan to procure the necessary revenue from land tax, environmental tax, and citizen income tax. If a basic income is introduced in Korea in the future, the actual policy should lie somewhere between Model Ⅰ and Model II. 
Our simulation results show that under Model Ⅰ, where the amount of annual basic income per person will range from 300,000 Won to 2,300,000 Won, 97% of the total households will become net beneficiaries of the policy. In contrast, the annual basic income will rise to 3,600,000 Won per capita with Model II, making 83% of the total households net beneficiaries. As the dividend per capita is greater in Model Ⅱ, the redistributive effect of income, which is shown in terms of the Gini-coefficient improvement, is much larger in Model Ⅱ than in Model I. Yet, because Model Ⅱ requires 185 trillion Won for its implementation, it seems politically less feasible to apply the Model II to the current Korean society.
Even with the implementation of Model I, the softer model, we expect the following changes to take place in Korea. First, the propensity to seek rents will be reduced after the imposition of national land tax on all land owners. Second, inequality in land ownership will be mitigated and Chaebols and large enterprises will focus more on productive investments rather than on land speculation. Third, basic income raises the sense of entitlements among all citizens, which will lead to social inclusion and cohesion. Lastly, the welfare system will be reinforced and become more sustainable by granting dividend to the middle-class under the basic income system.

전강수, 강남훈. (2017). 기본소득과 국토보유세: 등장 배경, 도입 방안, 그리고 예상 효과. 역사비평, 250-281.